We examined demographics surrounding polluting facilities in the US. We focused on areas within 3 miles of facilities and our findings are as follows:
- Higher % minorities within 3 miles of polluting facilities, lower % offsite releases by weight and toxicity (Higher off-site can be generally assumed to be better)
- Higher % of minorities within 3 miles of polluting facilities, higher toxicity per lb of on-site releases (If off-site is higher, then the facility is releasing “more toxic” releases away from the facility)
- % of offsite releases by weight and toxicity increases with income
- Toxicity per pound of releases increases with poverty level
This is how total pollutants, total hazard and RSEI Scores (provides a measure of risk) are associated with demographics:
Variable Total Releases Total Hazard RSEI Scores
Compared to reference group: % minority <5 percent %Minority>90 Higher** Higher** Higher*
% Minority 75-90 Higher**
% Minority 25-50 Higher**
Compared to reference group % below poverty level <5
%below poverty level>25 Higher** Higher*
% below poverty level 10 to 25 Higher**
Population>50K Lower** Lower** Lower**
% without high school diploma>35 Lower** Lower*
According to this table, polluting facilities with more than 90% of population being minorities within 3 miles radius have total releases, higher total hazard, and higher RSEI scores compared to facilities with less than 5 percent of minorities.
Based on Regression Analysis
Variable % on-site releases % on-site onsite releases hazard % of total
% minority>90 Higher** Higher**
% minority 75-90 Higher**
% minority 50-75 Higher**
% minority 25-50 Higher**
% below poverty level > 25 Higher** Higher*
% below poverty level 10-25 Higher*
Population>50K Lower** Lower** Lower**
% without HS Diploma>35 Lower** Lower* Higher*
% Change in Releases by Weight and Toxicity and Likelihood of score change > 10 percent, 1999-2006
Variable %change % change Likelihood of scores by weight by toxicity changing by 10%
% below poverty Reduce** 10 to 25 percent
% below poverty Reduce** 5 to 10 percent
Population>50K Reduce** 1.3 likelihood scores will not rise more than 10%
% without diploma>35 Increase**
* No association between County Toxicity in 1996 and Population Change between 1991 and 2001.
* Positive association between County Toxicity in 1996 and Per Capita Income Change between 1991 and 2001
* Manufacturing Dependent Counties have higher Mean Toxicity
* Housing Stressed Counties have Higher Mean Toxicity
* Low Education Counties have Lower Mean Toxicity
* Low Employment Counties have Lower Mean Toxicity
* Persistent Poverty Counties have Lower Mean Toxicity.
* Persistent Population Lose Counties have lower Mean Toxicity .
Do banks cook up the books? The answer is yes. However, not all banks do. Some banks do. They usually have low growth, low book-to-asset ratio, high loans-to-deposit ratio, high debt-to-asset ratio, low market-to-book value ratio, low return on assets, high loan-loss provisions to gross loans ratio and low assets. And wall street knows about them and wall street analysts typically give lower valuations to them.
The income smoothing hypothesis is examined for large banks that reported their earnings over the period 1981–1991. It is analysed whether banks use loan-loss provisions to manipulate earnings. Results suggest that banks with close relationships between their loan-loss provisions and their earnings before loan-loss provisions but after taxes do tend to have smooth earnings. This conclusion is statistically significant within the 5% level. An examination of the influence of firm-specific conditions on the time-series behaviour of the provisions for loan losses reveals that the Tax Reform Act of 1986 does not have an impact on income smoothing. We find that banks with low growth, low book-to-asset ratio, high loans-to-deposit ratio, high debt-to-asset ratio, low market-to-book value ratio, low return on assets, high loan-loss provisions to gross loans ratio and low assets are likely to smooth their earnings. Our analysis indicates that the stock market perceives the income-smoothing behaviour of banks.
Fast food consumption has been considered as a major cause for obesity in the US. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between the average frequencies of eating a meal from a fast-food restaurant per week and the obesity measured in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI). Our analysis based on a nationwide survey of Americans indicate that a meal from a fast food restaurant per week on an average increases the BMI by 0.16 or 0.17 after adjusting for race, gender, education, marital status, age, and income. However, our analysis does not find a similar effect for meals eaten from any restaurant. When people were asked to rank on a scale from very important to not at all important whether the kinds of foods marketed in restaurants and grocery stores as a cause for their obesity, ranking increases from not at all important to very important as obesity measured in BMI increases. In other words, higher is a person’s BMI, more importance a person assigns to the cause for their obesity being the kinds of foods marketed in restaurants and grocery stores.
In this paper, we examine whether legal origin of a country and
pharmaceutical prices have any impact on the pharmaceutical R&D
spending. Our analysis shows that countries with Socialist and
French legal origins have lower pharmaceutical R&D intensities
than English legal origin countries. Scandinavian legal origin
countries have higher pharmaceutical R&D intensities than English
legal origin countries. Our analysis does not find any statistically
significant differences in pharmaceutical R&D intensities in
German and English legal origin countries. The pharmaceutical
prices have positive influence on the pharmaceutical R&D
intensities. The per capita GDP of a country is found to have no
statistically significant influence on the pharmaceutical R&D
The purpose of this paper is to discuss total quality management
(TQM) . Very few service companies have been able to reap full
benefits of TQM. One major reason for its inadequate success is
that of trying to implement in service companies techniques that
have been successful in manufacturing. In manufacturing, emphasis
of TQM is on “zero defects”. Control charts and sampling are the
major tools of quality control. However, in services, emphasis is
on “zero defections”. Focus is on customer satisfaction and team
approach. TQM can boost profits and improve customer satisfaction.
However, success depends on knowing how to implement TQM in service
In recent years, U.S. corporations have reduced environmental emissions and — in response to pressures from governments, investors, environmental groups, customers, and employees — are developing “cradle-to-grave” pollution prevention strategies. Increasingly, corporate leaders see that managing environmental issues effectively can be a significant source of competitive advantage and sustainable growth.
eJournal USA – The greening of US Corporations
In this study, we examine the statewide consumption of health care resources. We assume that the physicians, hospital beds, nurses, and pharmaceuticals represent inputs to the health care delivery system required to treat the population of each state. Since health care resources needed by the various age groups of the population are different, we categorize the population into under 18 years of age, 18 to under 65 years of age, and 65 years of age and older. We develop efficient production frontiers and estimate the overall efficiency of individual states, and also the efficiencies of four inputs. In addition, we estimate the excess number of physicians, nurses, hospital beds, and pharmaceuticals consumed. This study should be useful for the states to help identify appropriate policy measures to make their health delivery systems more efficient.
Pollution reduction is one of the most challenging problems confronting corporations in the 1990s. Growing public concern, stricter enforcement of laws and regulations, sky rocketing clean-up costs, and multi-billion dollar liability suits are putting increasing pressures on companies to take action against pollution. This article describes how pollution reduction can be incorporated in the Business Planning process.
Long Range Planning
Volume 25, Issue 4, August 1992, Pages 54–61